80 Years Ago—Oct. 11, 1940: Movie premiere of musical Down Argentine Way, starring Don Ameche, Betty Grable, and Carmen Miranda.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 11, 1945: US Marines land at Tsingtao, China to slow communist advances; Japanese troops in Tsingtao surrender to US.
80 Years Ago—Oct. 10, 1940: Hitler starts Führer-Sofortprogram to build air-raid shelters in German cities.
The National Gallery in London begins holding lunchtime concerts in the Octagonal Room every weekday for the duration.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 10, 1945: Soviet code clerk defects to US and reveals extent of Soviet spy ring in US.
In the World Series, the Detroit Tigers defeat the Chicago Cubs 4 games to 3.
USS Ocelot aground in Buckner Bay, Okinawa, with her stern severed by USS Nestor after Typhoon Louise ravaged that port 9 October 1945. Nestor’s bow is in the center of this photo. (US Naval History & Heritage Command)
80 Years Ago—Oct. 9, 1940: Luftwaffe bomb pierces dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, destroying the high altar.
Germans begin occupying Romanian oil fields.
President Roosevelt releases policy allowing Blacks to serve as officers for Black military units; Army begins to recruit Black nurses and doctors to care for Black patients only.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 9, 1945: Typhoon Louise hits Okinawa, killing 36 and destroying hundreds of US ships.
American pilots of No 71 ‘Eagle’ Squadron rush to their Hurricanes at Kirton-in-Lindsey, 17 March 1941 (Imperial War Museum: CH 2401)
80 Years Ago—Oct. 8, 1940: RAF forms Eagle Squadrons for volunteer American fighter pilots.
RAF ace, Czech pilot Jozef Frantizek (28 kills), is killed in a crash in Surrey.
First Indian Air Force pilots arrive in Britain.
In the World Series, the Cincinnati Reds defeat the Detroit Tigers 4 games to 3.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 8, 1945: Former Nazi leader Rudolf Hess (who stole plane May 10, 1941 and flew to Scotland in unauthorized attempt to encourage British to seek peace) is flown from England for the Nuremberg Trials.
Maj. Gen. Lucian Truscott, Dec. 1944 (US Army Center of Military History)
80 Years Ago—Oct. 7, 1940: German troops enter Romania at request of fascist Gen. Ion Antonescu.
Japanese protest US embargo on vital materials as an “unfriendly act.”
First US radar installation (SCR-270) becomes operational at Fort Sherman, Panama Canal Zone.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 7, 1945: Gen. Lucian Truscott assumes command of US Third Army, replacing Gen. George Patton, who has been transferred to command US Fifteenth Army due to his criticism of US “de-Nazification” program for German officers.
80 Years Ago—Oct. 6, 1940: The Tizard Mission, a delegation of British scientists sent to the US to exchange technologies, demonstrates the cavity magnetron, essential for airborne radar.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 6, 1945: International Military Tribunal hands down indictments on 24 top Nazis at Nuremberg, Germany.
Tavern owner “Billy Goat” Sianis buys a seat for a goat at the World Series and is escorted out; he casts the so-called “goat curse” on the Chicago Cubs.
Poster for the College Graduates’ Naval Reserve Officers Training Program, WWII
80 Years Ago—Oct. 5, 1940: French police conduct mass arrests of communists in Paris.
US Navy and US Marine Corps place reserve divisions and aviation squadrons on call for active duty.
Lt. Louis Zamperini, bombardier of B-24D Liberator ‘Superman’ inspects hole from a 20mm shell over Nauru, Apr 20 1943; photo taken at Funafuti, Gilbert Islands (US National Archives: 342-FH-3A42819-23927AC)
75 Years Ago—Oct. 5, 1945: Lt. Louis Zamperini (Unbroken) returns home, over two years after his plane ditched in the Pacific.
Meet the Press premieres on the radio.
“Hollywood Black Friday”: a six-month-long set decorators’ strike erupts in a riot at the gates of Warner Brothers’ studio in Burbank, CA; 40 injured.
US poster, 1942
80 Years Ago—Oct. 4, 1940: French government in Vichy announces that foreign Jews in the unoccupied zone may be interned in camps; 40,000 will be sent to camps in the Pyrenees.
Movie premiere of Knute Rockne, All American, starring Pat O’Brien & Ronald Reagan, in South Bend, IN.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 4, 1945: US orders the termination of the War Production Board and the Civilian Production Administration.
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain arrives at Munich for the Munich Conference, 29 September 1938 (German Federal Archives: Bild 183-H12967)
80 Years Ago—Oct. 3, 1940: Former British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigns from Parliament due to poor health.
Vichy France passes its first antisemitic law (which applies to all France)—the law defines Jewishness, bans Jews from the military and from working in the press, entertainment, civil service, and as professors.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 3, 1945: In the Philippines, the first case is filed to try leaders who collaborated with the Japanese.
World Federation of Trade Unions is formed, with CIO as a member.
Elvis Presley (age 10) makes his first public appearance, at the Mississippi-Alabama Fair and Dairy Show.
Patch of the US Fifth Army, WWII
80 Years Ago—Oct. 2, 1940: Due to U-boat danger, Britain suspends the Children’s Overseas Reception Board, which had evacuated children to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the US—but private evacuations continue.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 2, 1945: US Fifth Army in Italy is inactivated.