French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier (right) and French ambassador to Germany André François-Poncet at the Munich Conference, Munich, Germany, 29 September 1938 (German Federal Archive: Bild 183-H12956)
80 Years Ago—October 7, 1939: Commission for the Strengthening of German Nationhood is established under Heinrich Himmler, to eliminate “inferior” people from the Reich and to deport German Jews to Poland.
French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier rejects Hitler’s call for peace talks.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 7, 1944: US Third Army completes liberation of Luxembourg.
First German V-2 rocket hits Antwerp, Belgium.
British Cabinet decides to continue censorship of reporting on V-2 rocket attacks.
Adolf Hitler giving a speech to the Reichstag, Kroll Opera House, Berlin, Germany, in which he calls for peace talks, 6 Oct 1939 (German Federal Archive: Bild 183-E11354)
80 Years Ago—October 6, 1939: Hitler calls for peace talks with Britain and France.
Japanese abandon Changsha due to strong Chinese counterattack.
Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, Paul Whiteman, and Fred Waring perform at Carnegie Hall.
Gen. Joseph Stilwell and Maj. Gen. Curtis LeMay at a US airfield in China, 11 October 1944 (US Library of Congress: LC-USZ62-132808)
75 Years Ago—Oct. 6, 1944: US First Army enters the Hürtgen Forest in Germany.
US Gen. Joseph Stilwell is recalled from his position as Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of staff, but he maintains command over troops in Burma.
Canadian Calgary Highlanders Sniping Platoon Sergeant Harold A. Marshall posing with his Lee-Enfield No. 4 Mk. I rifle, Kapellen, Belgium, 6 Oct 1944 (Library and Archives Canada: 3206370)
80 Years Ago—October 5, 1939: USSR forces Latvia to allow Soviet troop bases.
US Navy Hawaiian Detachment opens at Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 5, 1944: Canadian troops cross Belgian-Dutch border north of Antwerp.
Germany begins conscription of sixteen-year-old boys.
Germans lose 36 Linsen explosive-packed boats in a raid off the Scheldt Estuary.
French women are granted the right to vote for the first time ever.
Alfred Smith (Library of Congress)
75 Years Ago—October 4, 1944: British paratroopers land at Patras, Greece, and on Crete and Aegean islands.
US Sixth Army secures Morotai in the Netherlands East Indies.
Alfred Smith, 1928 presidential candidate and four-term governor of New York, dies in New York City, age 70.
Publication of Gwethalyn Graham’s Earth and High Heaven, which will be the first Canadian novel to hit #1 on the New York Times bestseller list.
Adolf Hitler at a German military parade in Warsaw, Poland, 5 Oct 1939 (German Federal Archive: Bild 146-1974-132-33A/ Mensing)
80 Years Ago—October 3, 1939: Germans order ruthless exploitation of occupied Poland.
Submarine USS Seawolf off the Mare Island Navy Yard, CA, 7 March 1943 (US Navy photo # NH 99549)
75 Years Ago—October 3, 1944: Germans evacuate Athens, Greece.
In the Southwest Pacific off Morotai, Japanese sub RO-41 sinks destroyer escort USS Shelton; in counterattack, destroyer escort USS Richard M. Rowell accidentally sinks submarine USS Seawolf.
Polish insurgent fighter surrendering from the sewers under Warsaw, 27 September 1944 (German Federal Archive. Photographer: August Ahrens, Bild 146-1994-054-30)
80 Years Ago—October 2, 1939: Act of Panama signed by US and other Western Hemisphere nations, declaring Pan-American Security Zone, a 300-mile zone of neutrality off the coast of the Americas (at about 60˚ W).
75 Years Ago—Oct. 2, 1944: The Warsaw Uprising ends, as the Polish Home Army surrenders to the Germans; 200,000 Poles have been killed.
Wasps (US female pilots) notified of discontinuation of WASP program in December.
German Adm. Karl Dönitz, April 1943 (German Federal Archive: Bild 146-1976-127-06A)
80 Years Ago—October 1, 1939: In Germany, Karl Dönitz is promoted to rear admiral and Commander of the Submarines.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 1, 1944: Canadian forces open campaign to clear the Scheldt Estuary around the port of Antwerp, Belgium.
Library of Congress once again displays the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution, retrieved from Fort Knox.
Canadian armored cars in Putte, during the Anglo-Canadian drive in the Scheldt Estuary, 11 Oct 1944 (Imperial War Museum: 4700-05 HU 69103)
Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski, 1942 (Library of Congress)
80 Years Ago—September 30, 1939: French troops withdraw from German Saar region.
Gen. Władysław Sikorski becomes prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile in Paris.
New song in Top Ten: “Moonlight Serenade.”
Soldier poses next to one of the German coastal guns captured by the Canadians at Cap Gris Nez, France, 1 October 1944 (Imperial War Museum B 10467)
75 Years Ago—Sept. 30, 1944: Allies capture last German cross-Channel guns; residents of heavily bombarded Dover, England celebrate.
Canadians take Calais, France.
In the Pacific, US declares Peleliu secure, but resistance remains.
US Marines on Peleliu, September 1944 (US Marine Corps photo)
Polish rifles collected by German troops, Warsaw, Poland, September 1939 (public domain via WW2 Database)
80 Years Ago—September 29, 1939: Poland officially surrenders to Germany and the USSR as the “Soviet-German Boundary & Friendship Treaty” is signed.
75 Years Ago—Sept. 29, 1944: In France, Canadians allow armistice in Calais to let civilians evacuate.
German and Soviet officers shaking hands, Poland, late September 1939 (public domain via WW2 Database)
80 Years Ago—September 28, 1939: Last Polish stronghold, the fortress of Modlin, falls after 18-day siege.
Soviets and Germans divide control of Poland along the River Bug.
75 Years Ago—Sept. 28, 1944: Greek government-in-exile and competing resistance groups agree to place forces under Allied command.
Soviet 57th Army enters Yugoslavia.