Make It Do – Sugar Rationing in World War II
What could be more American than Hershey bars, homemade cookies, and birthday cake? During World War II, these items were hard to come by in the United States.
Short on Sugar
When the Japanese conquered the Philippines in the early months of 1942, the United States lost a major source of sugar imports. Shipments from Hawaii and Central and South America had to be curtailed 50 percent as cargo vessels were diverted for military purposes – and due to heavy losses of cargo ships to German U-boats in early 1942. The supply of sugar fell by one-third. To ensure adequate supplies for manufacturers, the military, and civilians, sugar became the first food item to be rationed. Manufacturers initially received supplies at 80 percent of pre-war levels, but that was reduced over time.
Registration for Rationing
On April 27, 1942, families registered for ration books at their local elementary schools. One book was issued for each family member and had to be surrendered upon death. The sale of sugar was halted for one week to prepare for the program. To discourage hoarding, each family had to report how much sugar they had in stock over a certain amount – and the corresponding number of stamps was removed from the book. To further prevent hoarding, the sale of sugar was halted for a week.
On May 5, 1942, each person in the United States received a copy of War Ration Book One, good for a 56-week supply of sugar. Initially, each stamp was good for one pound of sugar and could be used over a specified two-week period. On June 28, 1942, each stamp became good for two pounds of sugar over a four-week period. The ration book bore the recipient’s name and could only be used by household members. Stamps had to be torn off in the presence of the grocer.
If the book was lost, stolen, or destroyed, an application had to be submitted to the Ration Board for a new copy. When entering the hospital for greater than ten days, the ration book had to be brought along.
On September 12, 1943, War Ration Book Three became active, replacing both Book One (sugar & coffee) and Book Two (meats, cheeses, canned & processed foods, and butter & cooking oil). War Ration Book Four replaced Book Three on November 1, 1944.
Home canning was encouraged during the war to reduce the use of rationed canned fruits and vegetables – however, canning requires sugar. To provide for this patriotic need, each person could apply for a 25-pound allotment of canning sugar each year. Each local ration board determined the quantity and season of availability based on the local harvest. A special canning sugar stamp in the ration book had to be attached to the application. In 1944, confusion arose when “spare canning sugar stamp 37” was called for – but many people mistakenly used the regular sugar stamp 37, invalidating it for normal household purchases.
Just because you had a sugar stamp didn’t mean sugar was available for purchase. Shortages occurred often during the war, and in early 1945 became acute. As Europe was liberated from Nazi Germany, the US took on the main responsibility for providing food to those ravaged countries. On May 1, 1945, the sugar ration was cut to 15 pounds per year for household use and 15 pounds per year for canning – a total of eight ounces per week.
Sugar was the last product to remain on rationing after the war. The program was discontinued in June 1947.
Housewives learned to be creative, using saccharine, corn syrup, and even packets of flavored gelatin as sugar substitutes. Women’s magazines featured recipes with reduced sugar or creative substitutes.
Do you have any stories of wartime sugar rationing?