Map of Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French Morocco and Algeria, 8 November 1942 (US Army)
Battleship USS Massachusetts maneuvering off Casablanca, Morocco, 8 Nov 1942, as seen from destroyer USS Mayrant (US National Archives)
75 Years Ago—Nov. 8, 1942: Operation Torch: 400,000 American and British troops land in Morocco and Algeria in three main forces.
In Naval Battle of Casablanca, US ships sink nine French warships.
Nurses from US 48th Surgical Hospital land with Torch forces, the first and last time women land with the assault during the war.
Nurses of the US 48th Surgical Hospital marching from the Arzeu docks, 9 November 1942 (US Army Medical Department)
US troops and equipment Z Beach, Arzeu, Algeria, 8 November 1942 (US National Archives)
Recruitment poster for US Marine Corps Women’s Reserve, WWII
75 Years Ago—Nov. 7, 1942: US Marine Corps approves establishment of women’s reserve.
New song in Top Ten: “I Came Here to Talk for Joe.”
European-African-Middle Eastern Theater of Operation ribbon, WWII
75 Years Ago—Nov. 6, 1942: US Marines take Koli Point, Guadalcanal.
US authorizes three Theater of Operation ribbons—US, Europe/Africa, Pacific/Asia.
First WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) report for shore duty.
Gibraltar, looking toward the Bay of Algeçiras (US Army Center of Military History)
75 Years Ago—Nov. 5, 1942: Vichy French governor of Madagascar officially surrenders to British.
Gen. Dwight Eisenhower arrives in Gibraltar, his headquarters for Operation Torch, the Allied landings in North Africa.
Songwriter George M. Cohan dies in New York City, age 64.
Sheet music for “Over There” by George M. Cohan (public domain via Wikipedia)
Carlson’s Raiders landing at Aola Point, Guadalcanal, 4 November 1942 (US Army Center of Military History)
75 Years Ago—Nov. 4, 1942: British victorious at Second Battle of El Alamein—Germans under Rommel retreat to Fuka in defiance of Hitler’s order.
Carlson’s Raiders (US Marines) land at Aola Point, Guadalcanal to harass Japanese behind lines.
Lockheed Ventura of No. 21 Squadron RAF over IJmuiden, the Netherlands, 13 February 1943 (Imperial War Museum)
75 Years Ago—Nov. 3, 1942: RAF flies first combat mission with Lockheed Ventura medium bombers, over the Netherlands.
Hitler orders Rommel not to retreat at El Alamein in Egypt.
On Guadalcanal, US Marines take Point Cruz and land at Koli Point.
Sherman tanks of the Eighth Army speed across the desert as Axis forces retreat from El Alamein, November 1942 (Imperial War Museum)
75 Years Ago—Nov. 2, 1942: In Operation Supercharge at El Alamein, Montgomery’s British Eighth Army breaks German lines.
In New Guinea, Australians reoccupy Kokoda and its airfield on way from Port Moresby to Buna, New Guinea.
In US elections, future Supreme Court member Earl Warren is elected governor of California.
At Bell Island, Newfoundland, torpedo from U-boat U-518 hits dock, the only direct German attack on North American land in the war; two ships are sunk.
US Marines cross the Matanikau River on Guadalcanal on a raft ferry in November 1942 (US Marine Corps photo)
75 Years Ago—Nov. 1, 1942: US Marines drive across Matanikau River on Guadalcanal.
US ceases production of liquor—warehouses contain a four-year stock.
US War Department designates Japanese aircraft with human names, initially with male names for fighters and female for all others.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 31, 1942: Luftwaffe raid on Canterbury, England, is hampered by British barrage balloons.
New York children trick-or-treat during the daytime due to blackout.
New song in Top Ten: “When the Lights Go on Again.”
Movie premiere of drama Now, Voyager, starring Bette Davis, Paul Henreid.
British Grant tank moving up to the front at El Alamein, Egypt, 29 October 1942 (Imperial War Museum)
75 Years Ago—Oct. 30, 1942: In Allied convoy SL-125 off West Africa, U-boat wolf-pack sinks six ships; this convoy distracts the U-boats from the approaching convoys for Operation Torch.
At El Alamein, Australians push north to the sea, trapping enemy force, most of which escapes west.